Figure 13. 3-D modeling of the summit deformations with 3 free fractures in the medium (horizontal view): displacement field (light arrows) and blow-up displacements on GPS points (heavy arrows). The displacement unit corresponds to 1 mm with a 1 MPa source and a Young’s modulus of 30 GPa. (a) Results with wall shear stress in the duct. (b) Results with pressure source. A linear combination of the two sources effects allows to reproduce correctly the observed displacements pattern from 1993 to 1997 for all the points except for the North-West one (NTR), which probably exhibits an inelastic behavior.

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